A mountain called Trikakuda or Traikakuda has been referred to more than once in Atharvaveda and other Vedic literatures. Maybe the name was inspired by a presence of three peaks of the mountain (Sanskrit kakuda means ‘hump’ or ‘projection’). Atharvaveda was the first book to call this Trikakuda Hills Añjanaparvata (Anjanaparvata) —devāñjana traikakudaṃ pari mā pāhi viśvataḥ/ na tvā tarantyoṣadhayo vāhyāḥ parvatīyā uta.
This Añjanaparvata (or Traikakudaparvata), Atharvaveda says, was a rich source of medicinal herbs. Other Vedic literatures refer to those hills as a repository of metals as well. But Taittirīya Saṃhitā (Taittiriya Samhita) and Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa (Satapatha Brahmana) offer the most remarkable piece of information about Añjanaparvata. When Vṛtrāsura (Vritrasura) was killed by Indra, his eye ball fell on Añjanaparvata and gradually transformed into añjana (anjana) or kohl, a cosmetic (and medicine) for the eye. The kohl of Traikakuda has been prescribed to be used in yajña (yajna) and only in this connection Añjanaparvata has been mentioned. In Atharvaveda also this mountain range has been described as a repository of kohl and other medicinal herbs. In āyurveda (ayurveda) and other ancient texts mention is found of an element called sauvīrāñjana (sauviranjana), which modern chemistry identifies as ‘antimony’. Since the Vedic era antimony has been being used for both cosmetic and medicinal purposes. Añjanaparvata was a huge resource of this principal ingredient of kohl. Most probably this was the truth behind the name of Añjanaparvata (literally ‘the Kohl-mountain’) getting associated legend of Vṛtrāsura and Trikakudaparvata. The location of Añjanaparvata can be guessed from the very name sauvīrāñjana. About its location Mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇa (Markandeyapurana) observes that Añjanaparvata was one of the major mountains lying west to Meru and Kiṅkabha (Kinkabha). It can be assumed that one of the mountains of modern day Sindh region of Pakistan, which corresponds to the ancient kingdom of Sindhu-Sauvīra, was known as Añjanaparvata or Trikakudaparvata. V.S. Agarwala identifies the Suleiman Mountains of Pakistan with Trikakuda. From the supporting information found in the Vedic literatures, it can be said that his assumption is well nigh accurate. In various Purāṇas (Purana) Añjanaparvata has been mentioned in league with Himālaya (Himalaya), Sumeru and other major mountains. The information of Purāṇas also bear proof that this mountain was famous as storehouse of medicinal herbs.
In Purāṇas sometimes the location of Añjanaparvata has been indicated beside the lake called Sitoda or Asitoda. It has also been said that Añjanaparvata was the abode of the eminent nāga (naga) people (ancient tribes who used to wear totem of nāga or snake).
In Mahābhārata (Mahabharata) we find Vidura advising the Pāṇḍavas (Pandava), after they lost everything they had in the game of dice and was supposed to leave the capital for the forests, to visit Añjanaparvata. He specifically mentioned that Añjanaparvata was the residence of the great sage Asita, from whose wise words the Pāṇḍavas would benefit much. It is natural to assume that the Añjanaparvata directed by Vidura to the Pāṇḍavas was same as the Traikakuda-Añjanaparvata discussed here.