Geography of India
  • Achaleshvara

    A hilly pilgrimage site. It is said that Himālaya (Himalaya), the king of the mountains, installed Acaleśvara liṅga (Achaleshwara linga) in Śivarudrapura (Shivarudrapura)— tatra pitrā suśailena sthāpitaṁ svacaleśvaram. Acaleśvara is a holy place. Along with Mahādeva Śiva (Mahadeva Shiva),the place is also famous because of Skanda-Kārtikeya (Skanda-Kartikeya). The temple of Kārtikeya, the general of the army of […]

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  • Achchhoda

    Acchoda (Achchhoda) is one of the greatest of all the famous lakes mentioned in Purāṇas (Puranas). In significance it is at par with the lakes Mānasa and Vindu. Due to variance in pronunciation it is sometimes spelled as Akṣoda (Akshoda). The lake was dug by a particular sect of manes called Agniṣvātta (Agnishvatta). It is […]

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  • Achiravati

    Rāptī (Rapti), a river that flowed through Ayodhyā (Ayodhya), mentioned in Purāṇas (Puranas), was also known as Acīravatī (Achiravati) or Airāvātī (Airavati). Scholars believe that the ancient city of Śrāvastī (Shravasti) was situated on the banks of river Acīravatī. It may be presumed that the quay or the wharf on the banks of Rāptī, the […]

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  • Adityatirtha – 1

    A pilgrimage site located on the bank of the river Sarasvatī (Sarasvati). Balarāma (Balarama), while travelling across several pilgrimage-sites, visited this site as well. Sūryadeva (Suryadeva; he Sun-god) achieved control over the planets and stars, through his performance of yajña (yajna, ritual sacrifice) at this site. According to Padmapurāṇa (Padmapurana), this pilgrimage site is situated […]

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  • Adityatirtha – 2

    In Matsyapurāṇa (Matsyapurana), when Mārkaṇḍeya (Markandeya) describes the greatness of Prayāga (Prayaga), we have the mention of another Ādityatīrtha (Adityatirtha), located towards the north of Yamunā (Yamuna). Still, the Ādityatīrtha that is found during the antarvedī parikramā (antarvedi parikrama; travelling around the inner altars, in a ritualistic mode) in the town of Prayāga, is probably identical […]

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  • Adrija

    Adrija is one prominent ethnic clan among others who participated in armed conflict against Bhīma (Bhima) and Arjuna, with the support of Aśvatthāmā (Ashwatthama), son of Droņa (Drona), and Duryodhana. A warring tribe, Adrija is usually mentioned together with the Yaudheya tribe (who also appear to be a warring clan). Adri means hills. Supposedly, they […]

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  • Agastya-ashrama – 06

    Yudhiṣṭhira, after crossing the Gayaśira Mountains, came to a place known as Agastya-āśrama (Agastya-ashrama). Nīlakaṇṭha in his commentaries identifies this place as Vātāpipurī (Vatapipuri) or Maṇimatīpura (Manimatipur).                                                         […]

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  • Agastya-ashrama – 08

    Mahābhārata (Mahabharata) in Vanaparva mentions an Agastya-āśrama located in Vaidūrya Parvata (Vaidurya Hills). The place is described to be absolutely charming. Scholars believe the Satpura range of mountains of today to be the Vaidūrya Parvata of ancient times.

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  • Agastya-Ashrama – 09

    Rāmāyaṇa (Ramayana) mentions that sage Agastya’s āśrama (ashrama; ‘abode’) was located four yojana to the south of his brother’s āśrama. In course of the description of this Agastya-āśrama , sage Agastya’s exploits have also been described, all of which seemingly took place in South India. The southern part of India had become habitable to all […]

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  • Agastya-ashrama – 10

    There is a place called Agasti Puri twenty four miles to the south-east of Nasik in Maharashtra. Many are of the opinion that Agastya had come here as well and there was a āśrama (ashrama) that bore his name in this place as well.

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  • Agastya-ashrama – 11

    There is an Agastyāśrama in Kolhapur in Maharashtra. In ancient days Kolhapur was known as Kolāhalapura (Kolahalapura). It is believed that sage Agastya visited Kolāhalapura once.

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  • Agastya-ashrama – 12

    There is an Agastya-āśrama (Agastya-ashrama) on Devasaha Parvata (Devasaha Hills) near Gokarṇa (Gokarna) in the region of Pāṇḍya (Pandya). This āśrama was founded by one of Agastya’s disciples, as Mahābhārata (Mahabharata) refers to this āśrama as belonging to a disciple of Agastya – āśramo’gastyaśiṣyasya puṇye devasahe girau. But Agastya himself must have set his foot […]

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  • Agastyakunda

    Agastyakuṇḍa (Agastyakunda) is a spring on Udyantaka Parvata (Udyantaka Hills). The spring is so called because sage Agastya had set up this mountain at this place. Eight sages, like Vyāsa (Vyasa) and Śuka (Shuka), had obtained salvation by performing tapasyā (tapasya) at this place. It is said that auspicious results may be obtained by one […]

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  • Agastyakuta

    Agastyakūṭa (Agastyakuta) is the name of a sacred mountain peak in South India. It is also known by the names Agastya Parvata, Agastamala Hills and Pothiyar Hills. Sugrīva (Sugriva) had sent his monkey scouts and warriors to the south to look for Sītā (Sita). Before seeing them off, he had asked them to meet sage […]

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  • Agastyatirtha – 1

    Agastyatīrtha is a place of pilgrimage in the Paṇḍya region in South India. It is a place of pilgrimage lying close to the southern sea in South India. Arjuna, having set out on a pilgrimage for twelve years after violating the condition of the Pāṇḍava brothers’ spending nuptial turns with Draupadī, came to this place […]

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  • Aghamarshan – 2

    A site of pilgrimage situated at the foot of the Vindhyas. Here Prajāpati Prāchetas Daksha (Prajapati Prachetas Daksha) prayed to Srī Harī (Srihari) and pleased Him by composing a hymn, titled Haṃsaguhya (Hamsagujhya), in His honour. According to N.L. Dey, the ancient pilgrimage of Aghamarṣana (Aghamarshan) constituted the present locales of Dhara, Kundi and Bedhak […]

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  • Agnidharatirtha

    Agnidhārātīrtha (Agnidharatirtha) is a riverside site of pilgrimage in Gayātīrtha (Gayatirtha). Agnidhārā is a river that has its source on the Udyantaka Hills — agnidhārā girivarādāgatyodyantakāduna. It is a place considered extremely sacred for performing funeral rites of the manes and offering of the obsequial cake to them.  Scholars differ in their opinions regarding the […]

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  • Agnipura

    Mahābhārata (Mahabharata) eulogises this place of pilgrimage as the city of Agni’s own — agneḥ pure naraḥ snātvā agnikanyāpure vaset.  Scholars identify this place with the city of Māhiṣmatī (Mahishmati). The place called Choli Maheshwar lying sixty- four miles away from the modern day city of Indore is considered to be the site of the […]

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  • Agnisarah

    A place of pilgrimage in Kokāmukha (Kokamukha) region of Himālaya (Himalaya) Mountains. Five cataracts coming down from a mountain called Girikuñja (Girikunja) created the illusive water of this lake. Another opinion speaks of a place in Himālaya that, though home to non-Aryans, was located in the site of pilgrimage called Lohārgala (Lohargala) and as a […]

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  • Ajabila

    It is a place of pilgrimage located on Śrīparvata (Shreeparvata; Shree mountain). This holy place is located on the southern bank of the river Kṝṣṇā (Krishnaa) in Kurnool district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.    

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  • Akrura – 2

    Akrūra is a site of pilgrimage in Purāṇas (Puranas). This holy place has been glorified in the chronicles of a merchant named Sudhana and a brahmarākṣasa (brahmarakshasha).                 Akrūra  has been mentioned in connection with other sites of pilgrimage in the city of Mathurā (Mathura); hence, it is quite likely that it was situated close to […]

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  • Alimadra

    Alimadra is a tribe or locality towards the north of Bhāratavarṣa (Bharatavarsha; India). Scholars have located this place as the district of Mardan or Hoti Mardan towards the north-east of Peshwar in Pakistan. This place is still historically important as a site exemplary of Graeco-Bactrian civilisation.

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  • Anantaparvata

    A holy mountain. It is extremely suitable for performing obsequies. Subodh Kapoor relates that according to Bārhaspatyasūtra  (Barhaspatyasutra), the Ananta mountain is a Vaiṣṇava (Vaishnava) site. It is also known as Anantapadmanābha (Anantapadmanabha). It is the Anantapura area of the present Trivandrum. There is a temple dedicated to God Padmanābha (Padmanabha) in Anantapura. It is […]

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  • Andha – 4

    Andha is a nadītīrtha(a river-pilgrimage). It is a sacred river of India. Having a bath in this river yields fruits of high virtue. Another name of this river is Āndhilā (Andhila) or Chāndan (Chandan) or Chandrāvatī (Chandravati). This river was known as Āndomatī (Andomati) to the Aryans. The river Andha or Chandrāvatī has got assimilated […]

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  • Anga – 8

    A country or kingdom. The word Aṇga (Anga) is also used to refer to the citizens of the kingdom of Aṇga. Usually, it is mentioned along with four other kingdoms situated in eastern India—Aṇga, Vaṇga (Banga), Kaliṇga (Kalinga), Suhma (Suhma) and Puṇḍra (Pundra). Perhaps these five kingdoms formed a confederacy of which the capital was […]

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  • Angaloka

    A kingdom situated on the far west of India, flanked by mountains, and inundated by seven rivers. In the Middle Ages, during the emergence of Islam, when Makran (a semi-desert coastal strip in Balochistan, in Pakistan and Iran, along the coast of the Persian Gulfand the Gulf of Oman) was under the occupation of the Arabs, Hinglaj gained popularity as a […]

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  • Anitabha

    A river. Anitabhā (Anitabha) has been mentioned along with two other rivers, namely Rasā (Rasa) and Kubhā (Kubha) in a verse of Ṛgveda (Rigveda) in which the composer calls rain down on the Earth – rasānitabhā kubhā krumurmā vaḥ sindhuni.  The river has been identified as Kandia, the river flowing through the north-west region of modern day […]

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  • Anjanaparvata – 1

    A mountain called Trikakuda or Traikakuda has been referred to more than once in Atharvaveda and other Vedic literatures. Maybe the name was inspired by a presence of three peaks of the mountain (Sanskrit kakuda means ‘hump’ or ‘projection’). Atharvaveda was the first book to call this Trikakuda Hills Añjanaparvata (Anjanaparvata) —devāñjana traikakudaṃ pari mā […]

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  • Anjanaparvata – 3

    According to Kiṣkindhyākāṇḍa (Kishkindhyakanda) of Rāmāyaṇa (Ramayana), Añjanaparvata (Anjanaparvata) and its surrounding area was the habitat of the vānara (vanara) people (the Sanskrit word means ‘monkey’. Surely this place was no ‘monkey kingdom’. It is supposed that this area was ruled by an ethnic group of people who used to wear the totem of and identified themselves […]

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  • Anjasi

    Añjasī (Anjasi) is a river mentioned in Ṛgveda (Rigveda). In a hymn, Sage Kutsa, son of Aṅgirā (Angira), takes the name of this river together with two others: Kuliśī (Kulisi) and Vīrapatnī (Virapatni).  Manohar Lal Bhargava observes that the course of Añjasī stretched through the regions of Kailor, Kunjheri, Mauli, Manauli, Mota and Jansia; thereafter the […]

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  • Ankol

    A site of pilgrimage situated on the southern bank of the holy river Narmada; it has been alluded to in Matsyapurāṇa (Matsyapurana) and Kurmapurāṇa (Kurmapurana). The piety obtained at this sacred site from ablution, charity, feasts and making sacramental offering to the manes has been described in Purāṇas. It is assumed that there is an idol of […]

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  • Apaga

    Āpagā (Apaga) is a river; and there is a pilgrimage site named after this river. In Mahābhārata (Mahabharata) it is said that the river is located about one krośa (krosa, about two miles) away towards the east of Mānuṣatīrtha (Manushatirtha, the pilgrimage site called Manusha). It is hailed as a site of great virtue. It […]

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  • Aruna-Varuna sangama

    Aruṇā (Aruna)and Varuṇā(Varuna), two sacred rivers have merged into Gautamī Gaṅgā (Gautami Ganga). The place of this assimilation of the flows is known as Aruṇā-Varuṇāsaṅgama (Aruna-Varunasangama; the place of union of the two rivers), but Padmapurāṇa (Padmapurana)says that initially Godāvarī flowed in between Aruṇā and Varuṇā — aruṇā-varuṇayormadhye yatra godāvarī nadī. Basically, this Gautamī Gaṅgā […]

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  • Ashtavakra – 2

    Aṣṭavakra (Ashtavakra)is the name of a tīrtha (tirtha; site of pilgrimage) mentioned in Anuśāsanaparva (Anusasanaparva)of Mahābhārata (Mahabharata). Visting this site, one may attain to the benefit of the Aśvamedha yajña (Aswamedha yajna). Rahugram or Raila is four miles away from the present-day Haridvāra. A small river flows by the side of this region, that river is […]

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  • Asikni – 1

    Asiknī (Asikni) is one of the sacred rivers in ancient India. According to scholars, The river called Asiknī, in Vedic times , later came to be known as Candrabhāgā (Chandrabhaga) in Sanskrita (Sanskrit).Yāska (Yaska), the author of Nirukta has said , asiknyāśuklāsitā, sitāmiti varṇa nāma. tat prativedho’sitam. That is — the river has a blcakish […]

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  • Asita – 4

    Asita is a parvata (mountain) mentioned in Vanaparva of Mahābhārata (Mahabharata). It is located in the land of Ānarta (Anarta), in western India, by the river Narmadā (Narmada). The mountain is full of many fruit-bearing trees — vahumūlaphalopetastusito nāma parvataḥ. The hermitages of Sage Viśvāmitra (Viswamitra) and Sage Kakṣasena (Kakshasena) were located near this mountain. […]

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  • Asoka – 6

    Aśoka (Asoka) is a tīrtha (tirtha; pilgrimage site) of middle-southern India, as mentioned in Vanaparva of Mahābhārata (Mahabharata). Abound in several hermitages, it is located near Śūrpāraka (Surparaka) tīrtha. According to scholars, this Sūrpāraka tīrtha is the modern Sopar, which is in Mahārāṣṭra (Maharashtra). In this line of investigation, the modern location of Aśoka tīrtha […]

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  • Asthipura

    Asthipura is a sacred tīrtha (tirtha; site of pilgrimage). It is located towards the west of Thāneśvara (Thaneswara) and towards the North of Aujasaghāṭa (Aujasaghaṭa). It is thought that the corpses of the warriors, dead in the war of Kurukṣetra (Kurukshetra), were put to fire in this Asthipura. It is further said that the Chinese […]

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  • Aswanadi

    Aśvanadī (Aswanadi) is a river flowing across Bhojadeśa(Bhojadesa; the land of Bhoja) in Mahābhārata (Mahabharata). Karṇa (Karna), sired by Sūrya (Surya; the Sun-god), was born of the womb of Pṛthā (Pritha), a princess belonging to the Vṛṣṇi(Vrishni)-Bhoja dynasty. Being a virgin mother, out of fear and shame, Pṛtha put Karṇa in a casket and let […]

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  • Aswatirtha – 3

    One Aśvatīrtha (Aswatirtha) is found in Assam. This is located on the Aśvakrānta (Aswakranta) parvata (mountain) of Kāmākhyā (Kamakhya).

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  • Atharva

    A region located in Central India. Even though the name Atharva is mentioned in Mārkaṇḍeyapurāṇa (Markandeyapurana), the other Purāṇas refer to this land occasionally as Āvanta (Avanta), or as Arvuda or even as Atharvā (Atharva). According to D.C.Sircar, Atharva is another variation of Avantī (Avanti).

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  • Atreyi – 1

    In Sabhāparva(Sabhaparva) of Mahābhārata (Mahabharata), in course of describing the sabhā(sabha; court or assembley) of Varuṇa (Varuna, the god of water) Nārada(Narada) describes the major rivers present there. The name of one such river is Ātreyī(Atreyi), who has a special position in the court of Varuṇa. This river is mentioned along with Lauhitya or Brahmaputra. […]

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  • Attahasa – 2

    A place of pilgrimage located in Himālaya (Himalaya; the Himalayas).  This holy place is also famous as a shrine suitable for performing the funeral rites of the manes. Performing last rites of one’s ancestors and giving away things in charity at this holy site earns one great puṇya (punya).  There is also a shrine called Aṭṭahāsa in […]

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  • Aushtrakarna

    Auṣṭrakarṇa (Aushtrakarna) is a locality situated on the bank of the river Hlādinī (Hladini). The branch of Lohitya or Brahmaputra, flowing eastward is known as Hlādinī. Scholars think that the high flow of modern Brahmaputra is that very branch, and the site called Auṣṭrakarṇa was located by the river Brahmaputra in Eastern Himālaya (Himalaya). [See […]

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  • Avravanti

    Āvravantī(Avravanti) is the name of a locality mentioned in Rāmāyaṇa (Ramayana). Sugrīva(Sugriva) instructed the Vānara (Vanara), who were sent towards the south in search of Sītā, to visit this place as well, for the said purpose. Scholars consider that Āvravantī (Avravanti) as mentioned in Rāmāyaṇa (Ramayana), and the placed named Ākara (Akara), found in Vṛhatsaṁhitā […]

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  • Ekaparvata

    Ekaparvata is an ancient mountain. Kṛṣṇa (Krishna), Bhīma (Bhima) and Arjuna crossed this mountain while going to Girivrajapura, the capital of Jarāsandha. From the description of their route, it may be understood that the route from Kurujāṅgala (Kurujangala; the forest area of the Kuru teritory) to Magadha was extended across the rivers Gaṇḍakī (Gandaki) ,Mahāśona […]

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  • Ekasana

    Ekāsana (Ekasana) is an ancient non-Aryan tribe. According to the description of Sabhāparva (Sabhaparva) in Mahābhārata (Mahabharata), the Ekāsana (Ekasana) tribe dwelt in the bamboo grove located between the two mountains – Sumeru and Mandara– merumandarayormadhye śailodāmabhito nadīm ye te kīcakaveṇūṇāṁ chāyāṁ ramyāmupāsate. khasā ekāsanā hyarhāḥ pradarā dīrghaveṇavaḥ. On the occasion of the Rājasūya(Rajasuya) yajña(yajna) […]

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  • Elapura

    Elāpura(Elapura) is a sacred Pitṛtīrtha (Pitritirtha; a site of pilgrimage dedicated to the spirits of forefathers). It is sacred place suitable for performing the śrāddha (sraddha; post-funeral ritual dedicated to the deceased) ritual. matsa This is probably located in modern Elora.  However, Cunningham has identified the place called Verawal in Kathiawad, as the ancient Elāpura.

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  • Ikshula

    Name of a river that has been mentioned along with Vedasmṛtā (Vedasmrita), Vedavatī (Vedavati) and Tridivā (Tridiva) in Jambukhaṇḍavinirmāṇaparva [Jambukhandabinirmanparva; a sub-chapter of Bhīṣmaparva (Bhishmaparva)] of Mahābhārata (Mahabharata). But the source of this river is not given in Mahābhārata. In Vāyupurāna (Vayupurana), river Ikṣulā (Ikshula), along with Trisāmā (Trisama), Ṛtukulyā (Ritukulya), Lāṅgulinī (Langulini), Vaṃśdharā (Vamsadhara), […]

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  • Ikshumati

    A river that flowed through Kurukṣetra (Kurukshetra). It is said in the Ādiparva (Adiparva) of Mahābhārata (Mahabharata) that Takṣaka (Takshaka) and Aśvasena (Ashwasen) lived together at the banks of Ikṣumatī (Ikshumati). After Rāmacandra’s (Ramachandra) banishment to the forest,when Daśaratha(Dasharatha) died Vaśiṣṭha (Vasishtha) sent a number of messengers to the kingdom of Kekaya in order to […]

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