Anukarmā (Anukarma) is one of the many Viśvedevas (Viswedeva). In Ṛgveda (Rigveda), Viśvedevāḥ (Vishwedevah) is a deity addressed in many hymns. The meaning of Viśvedevāḥ is taken to be ‘all gods’. Yāska (Yaska), the first and renowned lexicographer of Vedic literature, writes in Nirukta that Viśvedevāḥ means all gods —Viśvedevāḥ sarve devāḥ, that is, the entire pantheon of gods. The thirty three deities alluded to in the early Vedic literature were collectively known as Viśvedevas. At a later stage, the twelve Ādityas (Adityas), the Rudras and the Vasus also came to be included in the circle of Viśvadevas, thereby increasing the number of deities referred to as Viśvadevas. Mahābhārata carries definite proof that eventually during the Vedic age itself the Viśvadevas came to be merged with the manes. Here it has been said that the Viśvedevas were always seen accompanying the manes— atra viśve sadā devā pitṛbhiḥ sārdhamāsate.
The Viśvadevas make their appearance before us alongside the manes—
viśvedevāśca ye nityaṃ pitṛbhiḥ saha gocarāḥ.
The assimilation of the Viśvedevas and the manes led to a change in the names of gods within the conglomeration of the Viśvedevas during the period of Mahābhārata itself; their numbers, too, are different in different texts. Anukarmā is one of the Viśvadevas mentioned in the Anuśāsanaparva (Anusashanaparba) of Mahābhārata.