Another name of Madana, the presiding deity of lust, love and affection. Once he was burnt to ashes by the fire of the third eye of Śiva-Mahādeva’s (Shiva-Mahadeva’s). Aṅga (anga) means body. Charred by Mahādeva’s fire of rage, Madana became incorporeal and hence came to be known as Anaṅga (Ananga; ‘one without a body’). An exceptional and lengthy description of Madana’s burning is found in the poem Kumārasambhava (Kumarasambhava) written by the great Kālidāsa (Kalidasa). Purāṇas (Puranas) chronicle of a time when Tārakāsura (Tarakasura) had established his unparalleled reign over the three lokas (planes) after defeating the gods. According to Brahmā’s (Brahma’s) boon, only Mahādeva’s son was capable of killing Tārakāsura. Therefore, until Mahādeva fathered a son, Tārakāsura remained undefeated and immortal. Moreover, by this time Goddess Śakti (Shakti) had been reincarnated as Himālaya’s (Himalaya’s) daughter, Pārvatī (Parvati). Only when she married Śiva would he be able to have a son. However, at that time, Śiva was engrossed in deep meditation. So, Indra, the king of gods, engaged Madana to embed desire in Śiva’s heart which would consequently end his meditation. Madana arrived at the Kailāsa (Kailasa) mountain and attempted to interrupt Śiva’s mediation in various ways.
Eventually, Mahādeva’s meditation was broken by mohanavāṇa (mohanavana; ‘arrow of bewitchment’) shot from Madana’s puṣpadhanu (pushpadhanu; ‘bow of flowers’). Mahādeva was infuriated and opened the third eye on his forehead. Madana was charred to ashes by the tears of anger. Henceforth the disembodied god Madana was known as Anaṅga.
In Rāmāyaṇa (Ramayana), this episode of Śiva burning Madana has been mentioned briefly—the place where Madana, the god who was burnt down by Mahādeva’s tears, left behind his scorched body later came to be known as Aṅgadeśa (Angadesha; ‘the land of Aṅga)—
aśarīraḥ kṛtaḥ kāmaḥ krodhāddevesvareṇa ha.
anaṅga iti vikhyātastadā prabhṛti rāghava;
sa cāṅga viṣayaḥ śrīmān yatrāṅgaṃ sa mumoca ha.